For the past year or so, ACA proponents have gloated over the fact that markets have not yet collapsed in a death spiral and that enrollment in Exchange plans has grown to 9 million. There are at least four recent developments, however, that suggest the ACA is in greater trouble than many realize.
Enrollments Way Lower Than Projected
The first piece of troubling news comes from CMS itself: Notwithstanding the full implementation of the individual mandate, CMS is projecting anywhere from 9.4 million to 11.4 million people enrolled in the Exchanges, an increase of 3-25% over its figure for 2015. And, while ordinarily growth rates of this nature might please insurers, the projections on the basis of which Obamacare was enacted asserted that 21 million would be in the Exchanges by 2016. Thus, while the Exchanges were running at 70% of original projections in 2015, they are now projected to run at just 45 – 52% of projections for 2016. Moreover, between 0.9 million and 1.5 million of the enrollees for 2016 are projected to come not from the uninsured but from those already holding off-Exchange individual market policies.
The reduced enrollment in the Exchanges has several ramifications. First, it likely means the pool in the Exchanges is less healthy on average than expected. Second it means the significant overhead expended in establishing the Exchanges and running them is spread over a lot fewer people. And third it means that Obamacare was essentially passed on greatly exaggerated assertions of its benefits. Does the extraordinarily elaborate and expensive apparatus is establishes make sense when the a far lower than projected number of people gain health insurance of quality? One also must wonder how the dilution of the individual mandate through various “hardship exemptions” may have lowered the number of people enrolled on the Exchanges.
[[Added 10/20/2015]] For an excellent analysis of this issue, look also at Brian Blase’s recent article in Forbes. (http://www.forbes.com/sites/theapothecary/2015/10/19/examining-plummeting-obamacare-enrollment-part-i/)
Footnote 1: CMS is now “unable” to make projections for the SHOP Exchanges. Are we now prepared to call them a bust?
Footnote 2: It is not clear whether the CMS enrollment projections took into account the very substantial gross and net premium that appear to be coming (see below).
More Coops Closing
The second piece of disturbing news is that at least four more coops insuring a significant number of people on the Exchanges are going out of business. They are as follows:
Health Republic Insurance of Oregon (10,000 members; $50 million startup “loan”). By the way, Dawn Bonder, CEO of Health Republic, was quoted in The Oregonian just a month ago as follows: “We are strong and we are sticking to our plan, which has always been slow and steady growth. We’re very financially stable,” Bonder said. “We see a long,healthy life in front of us.”
Colorado HealthOP (83,000 members; $72 million in startup “loans”). According to the Denver Post, this comes after the coop increased its enrollment seven-fold and captured 39% of the market in Colorado by cutting rates in 2015 (notwithstanding losses the year before).
Kentucky Health Cooperative (51,000 members; $146 million in federal loans, with a $65 million “emergency solvency loan” in 2014). Again, this coop managed to capture 75% of the Kentucky Exchange market by offering insurance at lower prices. Before shutting down, it had requested a 25% increase in premiums for 2016. By the way, anyone remember those stories about how Kentucky was the success poster child for the ACA? It looks like its success may have been built primarily by selling insurance at cut-rate prices hoping that most of the losses would be bankrolled by the federal government.
Tennessee Community Health Alliance (27,000 members; $73 million in federal startup loans). How had this coop captured market share? Apparently by charging premiums so low that, as reported by The Tennessean, it had to request a 32% increase for 2016 and was granted/directed — get this — to offer premiums at a 45% higher rate.
Many of the coops blame their failure on the Cromnibus law enacted in December of 2015 that prohibited use of non-appropriated funds to pay for the federal Risk Corridors program that, on paper, was supposed to have the federal government backstop up to 80% of losses. Given the magnitude of insurer losses thus far, the federal government is thus able to pay only 12.6% of the obligations created on paper by this program. If one assumes, however, that the coops are correct in blaming Risk Corridors rather than mismanagement for their failure, this would confirm the suspicions of many that insurers priced their policies deliberately low in order to bring in business, relying on the federal taxpayer to cover their losses. I would also not be surprised to see some sort of legal action relating to coops who, notwithstanding Cromnibus and the handwriting on the wall persisted in booking Risk Corridor receivables at full value until very recently.
There will surely be lots of finger pointing over the failure of these coops: Democrats pointing to the “evil” Cromnibus bill as the source (although many Democrats voted for the legislation) and Republicans pointing to the inherent flaws in the ACA as the root of the problem. In the meantime, however, in many states, one of the sources of lower-priced insurance has been eliminated, meaning that many will be seeing substantial increases in gross premiums.
The fall of the PPO?
One of the promises of the ACA was that it would continue to offer choice to consumers and that they would be able to keep their doctor. Not so in many states. Plans that offer greater degrees of choice in selecting one’s provider appear to be in some trouble, closing in the shadow of an impending adverse selection death spiral. In Florida, for example, zero PPOs will now be available on the Exchanges in 2016. In Texas, the state’s largest insurer, Blue Cross and Blue Shield, has announced that it lost so much money on individual PPO plans that it will no longer sell any in 2016. This development means 367,000 people will have to find other types of plans. In Illinois, Blue Cross is continuing PPOs for now, but only with narrower networks than had been available under a plan that had served 173,000 individuals.
I suspect this is just the beginning of problems for PPOs sold on the individual market in an era when insurers can not medically underwrite. Between 2014 and 2015, PPO premiums went up at a far higher rate than other plan types. We will shortly have the data to see whether this trend continued in 2016.
We don’t have all the information yet, but if ACA proponents like Charles Gaba are correct, we are looking at some substantial gross premium rate hikes in the United States, and extremely high rate hikes in some states. What Mr. Gaba has done is to go state by state through various filings and do what no one else has tried: correlate premium rates with actual enrollments. Although I do not always agree with Mr. Gaba, I must praise him for a very worthy and time consuming enterprise. The fact that some insurer is charging an astronomical premium for insurance doesn’t mean as much when few people are buying their product as it does when an insurer is getting a large share of the business. Unfortunately, the federal government does not publish in any place I can discover insurer-by-insurer breakdowns of enrollment.
The research suggests gross premiums will go up 12.45% nationwide once enrollment weighting is taken into account. Statewide figures range from a high of 41.4% in Minnesota, 39.0% in Alaska, and 30% in Hawaii to lows of 0.7% in Maine, 0.7% in Indiana and 3.5% in Connecticut. Among the bigger states, the estimates are 4% for California, 15.8% for Texas, 9.5% in Florida, and 7% in New York. As I have noted on this blog and in testimony before a Congressional committee, net premium increases — which is what really matters to purchasers — can often be considerably greater than these figures, particularly for poorer individuals, but also can be lower.
More to come
We will, of course, see what plays out. But for those who thought the brilliant engineering of Obamacare had forever slain the adverse selection dragon, beware. Dragon eggs can hatch.